Glossary of "S"

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“A sabbatical year is a prolonged hiatus, typically one year, in the career of an otherwise successful individual taken in order to fulfill some dream, e.g. writing a book or travelling extensively....

Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia (2005, August 29). Sabbatical year. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from

University of Illinois Office of the Vice President for Academic Affairs. (1996). Sabbatical study. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from

“Traditional: Those sandwiched between aging parents who need care and/or help and their own children. Club Sandwich: Those in their 50’s or 60’s, sandwiched between aging parents, adult children and...

Abaya, C. (n.d.). Welcome to the sandwich generation. Retrieved on November 15, 2005, from

Hammer, L. & Neal, M. (2005). Duel-earner couples in the sandwich generation. The Network News, 7(10). Retrieved November 30, 2005, from

“In satellite offices, employees work both outside the home and away from the conventional workplace in a location convenient to the employees and/or customers” (Kurland & Bailey, 1999, p. 54).

Kurland, N.B., & Bailey, D.E. (1999). Telework: The advantages and challenges of working here, there, anywhere, and anytime. Organizational Dynamics, Autumn, 53-68.

When the working hours of an attorney (or other professional) who works on a part-time schedule slowly creep back up towards full time, so that the employee ends up working close to full-time hours...

Williams, J. (2007). Legal professions and job demands: Implications for work-life balance. Sloan Work-Family Encyclopedia. Original source unknown; popularized by the Project for Attorney Retention and the Center for WorkLife Law, University of California, Hastings College of the Law. Retrieved November 1, 2007, from the Sloan Work and Family Research Network web site:

"Persons employed by a country other than their own for only part of a year because the work they perform depends on seasonal conditions. They are a subcategory of foreign migrant workers." (United...

Seasonal migrant workers. (n.d.). In UN Data Glossary. Retrieved from

"Throughout the 20th century job insecurity has been a pervasive problem for workers who labored in the secondary labor market. The low value “deskilled” jobs that comprise the secondary labor market...

Sweet, S. (2006). Job insecurity, a Sloan Work and Family Encyclopedia entry. Retrieved May 10, 2007, from the Sloan Work and Family Research Network website:

“We call it BASIC FLEX, but it goes my many names such as Premium Only Plans (POP), Premium Conversion Plans, Cash-In-Lieu-Of Plans, Salary Reduction Plans, Flexible Benefit Plans, Flexible Spending...

Basic (2005). What is a section 125- cafeteria plan? Retrieved on Aug 3, 2010, from

"An affordable housing assistance program offered by the federal government, either as rental vouchers which can sometimes be used for assisted living housing or as a "project-based Section 8" which...

Bookman, A., Harrington, M., Pass, L. & Reisner, E. (2007). Family caregiver handbook: Finding elder care resources in Massachusetts. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Trends in rate of growth of a particular group of industries, or "sector." Sectors include agriculture, services, manufacturing, finance, government, etc. (Schor)

As defined by Schor.

A person with a physical, mental, or emotional condition lasting six months or more, who has difficulty in doing any of the activities such as dressing, bathing, or getting around inside the home (...

Erickson, W., & Lee, C. (2008). 2007 disability status report: United States. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Disability Demo­graphics and Statistics.

“Regular amounts of time each week in which the child is left alone or left with a sibling younger than age 13” (Cappizano, Tout, & Adams, 2000). “A child between the ages of approximately 6 and...

Cappizano, J., Tout, K. & Adams, G. (2000). Child care patterns of school-age children with employed mothers, Occasional paper number 41. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute:

Cole, C., & Rodman, H. (1987). When school-age children care for themselves:  Issues for family life educator and parents.  Family Relations, 36, p.93.

"Self-employed workers are persons who are the sole owners, or joint owners, of the unincorporated enterprises in which they work, excluding those unincorporated enterprises that are classified as...

Self-employed workers. (n.d.). In UN Data Glossary. Retrieved from

A person with a disability that has any of the long-lasting conditions such as blindness, deafness, or a severe vision or hearing impairment (Erickson & Lee, 2008).

Erickson, W., & Lee, C. (2008). 2007 disability status report: United States. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Disability Demographics and Statistics.

“Serious health condition entitling an employee to FMLA leave means: an illness, injury, impairment, or physical or mental condition that involves: Inpatient care (i.e., an overnight stay) in a...

U.S. Department of Labor (1995). 29 CFR 825.800 - What is a ``serious health condition'' entitling an employee to FMLA leave?. Retrieved on on 2/24/05 from: click here.

"Sexual harassment is a form of sex discrimination that violates Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Title VII applies to employers with 15 or more employees, including state and local...

U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. (2007). Retrieved January 29, 2007, from

“Sexual violence is divided into three categories: 1) use of physical force to compel a person to engage in a sexual act against his or her will, whether or not the act is completed; 2) attempted or...

United States Department of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Intimate partner violence: Overview. Retrieved on June 28, 2007, from:

“The shareholder value is the value of the company (firm) minus the Future claims (debts.) The value of a company can be calculated as the Net Present Value of all future cash flows plus the value of...

Value Based (2005). Definition of shareholder value. Retrieved on October 17, 2005, from

“The ability for shift-workers to trade shifts with each other as needed” (FlexPaths).

FlexPaths. (n.d.) Glossary. Retrieved from

“Shift work refers to a job schedule in which employees work hours other than the standard hours of 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. or a schedule other than the standard workweek - Monday through Friday in the...

shift work on family satisfaction. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Social Services, 85(3), 413 - 423.

Costa, G. (2003). Factors influencing health of workers and tolerance to shift work. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 4(3 - 4), 263 - 288.

Institute for Work & Health. (n.d.). Fact sheet - shiftwork. Toronto, CA: Author. Retrieved August 3, 2005, from

Pitt-Casouphes, M. (2004, December). An interview with Larry Root and Elizabeth Rudd. The Network News: A Work-Family News Publication, 6(8). Retrieved August 18, 2005, from

"A program of the Executive Office of Elder Affairs providing free, confidential and unbiased health insurance counseling through a volunteer network of health benefits counselors. Information is...

Bookman, A., Harrington, M., Pass, L., & Reisner, E.  (2007). Family caregiver handbook: Finding elder care resources in Massachusetts. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

"Short Term Time Off (STO) refers to job-protected time away from the workplace (generally 5 days or less) to address anticipated or unexpected issues of limited duration. STO may be scheduled or...

Workplace Flexibility 2010. (2007). Facts on short term time off. Retrieved November 1, 2007, from the Workplace Flexibility 2010 web site:

“A second subset, employees without spouses or children, has been called one of the fastest-growing segments of the workforce” (Young, 1999, p. 33). “Clearly, there is a disconnect between the...

Young, M. B. (1999). Work-family Backlash: Begging the question, what's fair? The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 562, 32-46

“We can define singles as legally single or socially single, though the two often overlap. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, over 40% of adults are legally single, including people who are...

DePaulo, B. M., & Morris, W. L. (2006). The unrecognized stereotyping and discrimination against singles. Association for Psychological Science, 15, 251-254.

Casper, W. J., & Swanberg, J. E. (2009). Single childfree adults: The work-life stress of an unexpected group. In A. G. Antoniou, C. L. Cooper, G. P. Chrousos, C. D. Spielberger, & M. W. Eysenck (Eds.), Handbook of managerial behavior and occupational health (95-107). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

“We define singles-friendly culture as the shared assumptions, beliefs, and values regarding the extent to which an organization supports integration of work and nonwork that is unrelated to family,...

Casper, W., Weltman, D., Kwesiga, E. (2007). Beyond family-friendly: The construct and measurement of singles-friendly work cultures. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 70, 478-501.

"A nursing home providing services for residents whose general condition tends to be unstable, and requires close observation and care given by professional staff over a 24-hour period. Some skilled...

Bookman, A., Harrington, M., Pass, L., Reisner, E.  (2007). Family caregiver handbook: Finding elder care resources in Massachusetts.  Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

"Skipped generation families are families in which grandparents raise children and parents are absent from the household. This is one area in which different subcultures may have different norms." (...

Rothausen-Vange, T.J. (2005). Family Diversity, a Sloan Work and Family Encyclopedia entry. Retrieved March 30, 2007, from

“The Office of Advocacy defines a small business for research purposes as an independent business having fewer than 500 employees” (U.S. Small Business Administration, n.d.). “The Small Business Act...

U.S. Small Business Administration, Office of Advocacy. (n.d.). FAQ’s: Advocacy small business statistics and research. Retrieved from

U.S. Small Business Administration, Office of Advocacy. (n.d.).What is small business. Retrieved from

Small business. (n.d.). In BNET business directory. Retrieved from

U.S. Census Bureau. (2004). Statistics about business size (including small business) from the U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved from

"Broadly, social capital concerns the norms and values people hold that result in, and are the result of, collective and socially negotiated ties and relationships. It is integrally related to other...

Edwards, R. (2002). Social capital, A Sloan work and family encyclopedia entry. Chestnut Hill, MA; The Sloan Work adn Family Research Network.

Dominguez, S., & Watkins, C. (2003). Creating Networks for Survival and Mobility: Social Capital Among African-American and Latin-American Low-Income Mothers. Social Problems, 50(1) 111-135.

Ciabattari, T. (2007). Single mothers, social capital, and work-family conflict. Journal of Family Issues, 28, 34-60.

"A cross-disciplinary concept generally referring to the benefits of social networks, including problem solving related to mutual interests." (Putnam, 2000)

Putnam, R.H. (2000). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon & Schuster.

"Social Constructionism is a general term sometimes applied to theories that emphasize the socially created nature of social life." (Marshall, 1994)

Marshall, G. (Ed.). (1994). The Oxford concise dictionary of sociology. Oxford: Oxford University.