Glossary of "R"

  • A (36)
  • B (19)
  • C (58)
  • D (26)
  • E (34)
  • F (43)
  • G (20)
  • H (19)
  • I (27)
  • J (11)
  • K (1)
  • L (16)
  • M (27)
  • N (18)
  • O (18)
  • P (33)
  • Q (5)
  • R (30)
  • S (59)
  • T (16)
  • U (4)
  • V (7)
  • W (39)
Related: Ramp-Up Phase, Definition of “The phase in a project’s life cycle immediately following construction. It is during this phase, the early years of operation, that a project’s revenue stream...

Innovative Finance Service Transportation ISTEA TIFIA. (2005.) Glossary of terms. Retrieved on December 2, 2005, from http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/ipd/glossary/index.htm#r.

“The right to request flexible working applies to all staff, whatever their role or level of responsibility. The scheme has a ‘reason-neutral’ approach. This encourages both staff and managers to...

Business in the Community (BITC). (2004). Anglia Polytechnic University: Winner of the Opportunity Now Education Sector Award 2004. Retrieved November 30, 2005, from http://www.bitc.org.uk/resources/case_studies/onapu04.html.

Work-Life Balance. (n.d.) Frequently asked questions. Retrieved November 30, 2005, from http://www.wlbinwales.org.uk/faqs/index.htm.

“Reasonable accommodation may include, but is not limited to: (1) Making existing facilities used by employees readily accessible to and usable by persons with disabilities. (2) Job restructuring,...

U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. (2009). Facts about the Americans with Disabilities Act [Fact Sheet]. Retrieved from http://www.eeoc.gov/eeoc/publications/fs-ada.cfm

Balser, D. B., & Harris, M. M. (2008). Factors affecting employee satisfaction with disability accommodation: A field study. Employee Responsibilities & Rights Journal, 20(1), 13-28.

"A relational process, typically informal, between the parent and supervisor or parent and co-worker. The goal of the negotiation is to gain care response flexibility, especially for the...

Rosenzweig, J.M., Barnett, R.C., Huffstutter, K.J., & Stewart, L. (2008). Work-life integration: History, theory, and strategy. In J.M. Rosenzweig & E.M. Brennan (Eds.), Work, life, and the mental health system of care: A guide for professionals supporting families of children with emotional or behavioral disorders. Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing Co.

"Acknowledgment that many women and men want to parent their own children, and that day care and flexible schedule options are only part of the solution… eliminate the fundamental temporal...

Schor, J. (2003, May 12). Work Time and Gender Inequities, A Sloan Work and Family Encyclopedia Entry. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Williams, J. (2000). Unbending gender: Why family and work conflict and what to do about it. New York: Oxford University Press.

Recruitment involves the utilization of organizational practices to influence the number and types of individuals who are willing to apply for job vacancies (Rynes, 1991; Rynes & Cable, 2003)....

Casper, W. (2004). Recruitment, a Sloan Work and Family Encyclopedia entry. Retrieved May 10, 2007, from the Sloan Work and Family Research Network website: http://wfnetwork.bc.edu/encyclopedia_entry.php?id=251&area=academics.

“…a.) working no more than the median number of hours worked per week by other physicians of one’s own gender…for at least the preceding 3 months; and b.) considering oneself to be working reduced...

Barnett, R.C., Gareis, K. (2000). Reduced-Hours Employment: The Relationship Between Difficulty of Trade-Offs and Quality of Life. Work and Occupations 27(2), p.168-187

“Reduced-load work is defined as working less than full time, for example, 4 instead of 5 days a week, and being paid less accordingly.“ (Lee & Kossek, 2004)

Lee, M.D. & Kossek, E. (2004). Crafting Lives that Work: A Six Year Retrospective on Reduced-Load Work in the Careers and Lives of Professionals and Managers.  School of Labor and Industrial Relations.  Michigan University.

"…comparison other." (Grandey & Cordeiro) "The idea or thing that a word, symbolizes." (Abate, 2003). "A comparison standard." (Cordeiro)

Grandey, A. & Cordeiro, B. (2002, October 09). Family-Friendly Policies and Organizational Justice, A Sloan Work and Family Encyclopedia Entry. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Referent. (2002). In Frank Abate, (Ed.), The Oxford American dictionary of current English in English dictionaries and thesauruses. UK: Oxford University Press, Inc. Internet Explorer. www.oxfordreference.com (16 June 2003).

As defined by Cordeiro citing Adams: Adams, J.S. (1965). Inequity in social exchangee. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.). Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol 2 (pp. 267-299). New York: Academic Press. 

"Our perceptions of our identities are influenced by what we think others think of us as we enact our various roles." (Desrochers, Andreassi, Thompson)"[T]he human ability to think of and refer to...

Desrochers, S., Andreassi, J., & Thompson, C.  (2002, August 14). Identity Theory, A Sloan Work and Family Encyclopedia Entry. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Johnson, A. G. (1995). The Blackwell Dictionary of Sociology: A User's Guide to Sociological Language. Blackwell Publishers, Cambridge, MA.

As defined by Desrochers citing Stryker & Serpe:

Stryker, S., & Serpe, (1982). Commitment, identity salience and role behavior: Theory and research example. In W. Ickes & E. S. Knowles (Eds.). Personality, Roles, and Social Behavior. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Workers who, “work from home one or more full days per week, and work in a company office at least one full day per week” (Richman, Noble, & Johnson, 2002, p. 9).

Richman, A., Noble, K., & Johnson, A. (2002). When the workplace is many places. The extent and nature of off-site work today. Watertown, MA:WFD Consulting Inc.

“Reluctant hard workers operate at a relatively low hierarchical level and report relatively long working hours. They have a strong perception of pressure within their organization and have every...

Buelens, M. (2002, October 22). Addicted to work?.  Personnel Today, p.63-66.

“when managers are physically separated from their direct reports because the manager and/or the employee teleworks and thus manages these employees remotely” (Kurland & Bailey, 1999, p. 56).

Kurland, N.B., & Bailey, D.E. (1999). Telework: The advantages and challenges of working here, there, anywhere, and anytime. Organizational Dynamics, Autumn, 53-68.

Workers who, “perform their work from home full-time, although they may occasionally go into a company office” (Richman, Noble, & Johnson, 2002, p. 9).

Richman, A., Noble, K., & Johnson, A. (2002). When the workplace is many places. The extent and nature of off-site work today. Watertown, MA: WFD Consulting Inc.

"Generally refers to working off-site at a long-distance location. This might include employees who live year-round at another location, or those who live part of each month or part of each year at...

FlexPaths. (n.d.) Glossary. Retrieved from http://www.flexpaths.com/resources/glossary

Resilience is the set of skills and behaviours needed to be successful in the midst of a fast-paced and continuously changing work environment. It is the same set of skills that helps prevent work...

GlaxoSmithKline. (n.d.). Resilience and mental well-being. Retrieved February 21, 2007, from http://www.gsk.com/responsibility/cr_issues/ehs_mf_ems_programmes.htm#mental.

“Psychological resiliency … is the ability of people to return to normal by bouncing back from the ups and downs of life. To reduce the effects of stress and depression in your workplace (and to...

Johnston, D. (n.d.) The need for resiliency in health care: Enhancing employee resiliency and morale. Retrieved on December 2, 2005, from http://www.lessons4living.com/healthcare_resiliency.htm.

“Effective employee retention is a systematic effort by employers to create and foster an environment that encourages current employees to remain employed by having policies and practices in place...

Workforce Planning for Wisconsin State Government. (2005). Employee retention. Retrieved October 27, 2005, from http://workforceplanning.wi.gov/category.asp?linkcatid=15&linkid=18


“Retirement most often is defined with reference to two characteristics: nonparticipation in the paid labor force and receipt of income from pensions, Social Security, and other retirement plans. An...

Purcell, P.J. (2003, Spring). Older workers: Recent trends in employment and retirement. Journal of Deferred Compensation, 8(3), 30 - 53.

Adult students who are currently enrolled in a post-secondary degree-granting or continuing education program following a discernable break in their education, who may or may not have had any prior...

Hostetler, A.J., Sweet, S. & Moen, P. (2007). Gendered career paths: A life-course perspective on returning to school. Sex Roles, 56, 85-103.

Sweet, S. & Moen, P. (2007). Integrating educational careers in work and family: Women’s return to school and family life quality. Community, Work & Family, 10(2), 31-250.

"The frequency that individuals bring work home and receive work-related contact or communications outside of normal work hours." (Schieman & Glavin)

Schieman, S., & Glavin, P. (2008). Trouble at the border?: Gender, flexibility at work, and the work-home interface. Social Problems, 55(4), 590-611.

"Integration is believed to occur through two mechanisms: flexibility and permeability. Flexibility refers to the malleability of the boundary between two or more role/domains-its ability to expand...

Desrochers S. & Sargent, L. (2003, September 09). Boundary/Border Theory and Work-Family Integration, A Sloan Work and Family Encyclopedia Entry. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Clark, S. C. (2000). Work/family border theory: A new theory of work/family balance. Human Relations, 53(6), 747-770.

Hall, D. T., & Richter, J. (1988). Balancing work life and home life: What can organizations do to help? Academy of Management Executive, 3, 213-223.

Pleck, J. H. (1977). The work-family role system. Social Problems, 24, 417-427.

Ashforth, B. E., Kreiner, G. E., & Fugate, M. (2000). All in a day's work: Boundaries and micro role transitions. Academy of Management Review, 25(3), 472-491.

Nippert-Eng, C. (1996). Home and work. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

"The importance of a role is determined by commitment to the role, which includes attitudes and emotions, participation in the role, and knowledge about the role. An important issue in career...

Matzeder, M.E. & Krieshok, T.S. (1995). "Career self-efficacy and the prediction of work and home role salience." Journal of Career Assessment, 3(3), 331-340.

When two or more roles/life domains are both highly inflexible and highly impermeable, they are highly segmented. (Desrochers) "[I]ntegration is denoted by roles that are weakly differentiated (low...

As defined by Desrochers.
 
Ashforth, B. E., Kreiner, G. E., & Fugate, M. (2000). All in a day's work: Boundaries and micro role transitions. Academy of Management Review, 25(3), 472-491.

As defined by Desrocher citing Nippert-Eng

Nippert-Eng, C. (1996). Home and work. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Role theory attempts to explain the interactions between individuals in organizations by focusing on the roles they play. Role behavior is influenced by role expectations for appropriate behavior in...

Thompson, C. (2001, September 24). Conservation of Resources Theory, A Sloan Work and Family Encyclopedia Entry. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Katz, D., & Kahn, R. (1978). The social psychology of organizations (2nd Ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Barker, Robert L. (Ed.). (1999). The social work dictionary (4th Ed.). Washington, DC: NASW Press.

"Ashforth (2001) argues that role transitions involve crossing role boundaries, and he draws a distinction between 'macro role transitions and micro role transitions." (Desrochers & Sargent...

Desrochers S. & Sargent, L. (2003, September 09). Boundary/Border Theory and Work-Family Integration, A Sloan Work and Family Encyclopedia Entry. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Ashforth, B. E. (2001). Role transitions in organizational life: An identity-based perspective. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

As defined by Desrochers citing Ashforth, Kreiner, & Fugate:

Ashforth, B. E., Kreiner, G. E., & Fugate, M. (2000). All in a day's work: Boundaries and micro role transitions. Academy of Management Review, 25(3), 472-491.

"The sequential (and often permanent) exiting from one role and entering of another over time, such as a promotion (Ashforth, 2001) or downward job transition (Sargent, 2001)." (Desrochers &...

Desrochers S. & Sargent, L. (2003, September 09). Boundary/Border Theory and Work-Family Integration, A Sloan Work and Family Encyclopedia Entry. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Ashforth, B. E. (2001). Role transitions in organizational life: An identity-based perspective. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Sargent, L. D. (2001). Identity: Its maintenance during downward organisational role transitions. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Management Conference, Washington D.C.

As defined by Desrochers citing Ashforth, Kreiner, & Fugate:

Ashforth, B. E., Kreiner, G. E., & Fugate, M. (2000). All in a day's work: Boundaries and micro role transitions. Academy of Management Review, 25(3), 472-491.

Ashforth, B. E. (2001). Role transitions in organizational life: An identity-based perspective. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

"Switching back and forth among one's currently held roles." (Desrochers & Sargent) Ashforth (2001) defines micro role transitions as "the psychological and (if relevant) physical movement...

Desrochers S. & Sargent, L. (2003, September 09). Boundary/Border Theory and Work-Family Integration, A Sloan Work and Family Encyclopedia Entry. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.
 
As defined by Desrochers citing Ashforth, Kreiner, & Fugate:

Ashforth, B. E. (2001). Role transitions in organizational life: An identity-based perspective. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

Ashforth, B. E., Kreiner, G. E., & Fugate, M. (2000). All in a day's work: Boundaries and micro role transitions. Academy of Management Review, 25(3), 472-491.

“Rotating schedules are normally composed of ‘fixed length’ schedules with varying start times. There are two types of rotating schedules, forward rotating and backward rotating” (Oexman, Knotts,...

Oexman, R.D., Knotts, T.L., & Koch, J. (2002, December). Working while the world sleeps: A consideration of sleep and shift work design. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 14(4), 145 - 157.

Presser, H.B. (2003, November). Race-ethnic and gender differences in nonstandard work shifts. Work and Occupations, 30(4), 412 - 439.

Sparsely populated areas with restricted access to urban centers (Farmer, 2008; Housing Assistance Council, 2002; USDA Economic Research Service, 2004). The U.S. Census Bureau defines the term...

Farmer, F. L. (2008). Rural, definitions of. In G. Goreham (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Rural America:  The land and people (pp. 833-35). Millerton, NY: Grey House Publishing.

Housing Assistance Council. (2002). Taking stock: Rural people, poverty and housing at the turn of the 21st century. Washington, DC: Housing Assistance Council.

U.S. Census Bureau. (1994). Geographic areas reference manual. Retrieved September 18, 2008, from http://www.census.gov/geo/www/garm.html

USDA Economic Research Service. (2004). Measuring rurality: Rural-urban continuum codes. Retrieved September 10, 2008, from http://www.ers.usda.gov/Briefing/Rurality/RuralUrbCon/

Websdale, N., & Johnson, B. (1998). An ethnostatistical comparison of the forms of woman battering in urban and rural areas of Kentucky. Criminal Justice Review, 23, 161-196