Glossary of "P"

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"A program that provides low-income frail elders with all of their health, medical, rehabilitation, social, and support services and health insurance for one monthly fee. It enables them to remain...
This type of bill establishes legislative commissions to produce studies or assign study projects to government agencies to research a particular paid leave policy model.
Paid sick day bills address the need for some paid time off for short-term illnesses, routine medical appointments, and to care for sick family members. There are two paid sick day models: a minimum...
"Gender-neutral, job-protected leaves from employment that usually follow maternity leaves and permit either men or women to share the leave or choose which of them will use it. If there is no...
Parenting in the workplace is a childcare arrangement whereby employees directly care for their children at their workplaces while simultaneously attending to their routine job duties (Secret, 2005).
Working part time is working between 1 and 34 hours per week“ (United States Department of Labor, 2007, October 3). "A work schedule that encompasses fewer hours than the standard full-time schedule...
"Job-protected leaves from employment for fathers, for many of the same purposes as maternity and parental leaves, but especially for reasons of gender equity. They are usually much briefer than...
"Pay equity literally means “pay fairness.”  The concept of equity implies that one receives proportionally fair outcomes in return for what one invests in a relationship or situation, when...
Eaton (2000) proposes a distinct, more precise measure of available flexibility policies: the extent to which employees feel free to utilize such policies, whether formal or informal...Specifics...
"Extent to which a boundary allows psychological or behavioral aspects of one role or domain to enter another." (Desrochers & Sargent) "Permeability is the degree to which a role allows one...
“A bank of time that employees can use for vacation, personal or sick time, without specifying why they need the time off. The PTO bank provides more privacy and eliminates the guilt of having to...
"Personality has been defined as "an individual's characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior, together with the psychological mechanisms—hidden or not—behind those patterns" (Funder,...
"The reduction of work with a long-term employer as an older employee approaches full retirement" (Chen & Scott, 2006). "An arrangement that enables employees to gradually reduce their hours over...
“In the broadest sense, phased retirement means a gradual change in a person’s work arrangements as a transition toward full retirement. This may involve a change of employers (including self-...
“Arrangement in which full-time employees return from a leave of absence (for example, a parental leave) and work a reduced schedule for a certain period of time” (FlexPaths, n.d.).
A person with a disability that has any of the long-lasting conditions that substantially limit one or more physical activities such as walking, climbing stairs, reaching, lifting, or carrying (...
“Physical violence is the intentional use of physical force with the potential for causing death, disability, injury, or harm. Physical violence includes, but is not limited to, scratching; pushing;...
"Many retirees take temporary or part-time work to fund the hobbies and trips they want to enjoy during retirement. Take my sister, who is retired from a warehouse job and wanted to go skiing in...
Political globalization ”refers to an increasing trend toward multilateralism (in which the United Nations plays a key role), toward an emerging ‘transnational state apparatus,’ and toward the...
The term the "politics of time" has been used to describe how employees use their time at work and how employers interpret that use (Rapoport et al., 2002; Sirianni, 1988). Many employers continue to...
“Families may be polygynous or polyandrous...that is, consist of a man or woman with more than one spouse and corresponding sets of children, though often each co-spouse may form a separate household...
“The poverty thresholds (also called “poverty lines”) are income levels that the Census Bureau compares to actual family income to determine poverty status. Everyone with family income below the...
"While poverty generally refers to material deprivation, it is a multifaceted experience for those who are struggling to get by. It can certainly involve economic hardship, such as difficulty in...
“Discrimination on the basis of pregnancy, childbirth or related medical conditions constitutes unlawful sex discrimination under Title VII. Women affected by pregnancy or related conditions must be...
“Presenteeism is defined as lost productivity that occurs when employees come to work but perform below par due to any kind of illness. While the costs associated with the absenteeism of employees...
The type of childcare - either supervised or self-care - used for the most number of hours while the mother is working” (Cappizano, Tout & Adams, 2000).
“In a primary shift schedule, employees work a fixed shift and occasionally work the opposite shift. This type of shift is most susceptible to workplace accidents and efficiency problems (Owen, 1976...
"In dealing with work-family issues and E.U. members subscribe to one of four models. The first is a privatized (noninterventionist) care model and includes Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. The...
Common measures of productivity include work output, time and face time at work, absences. Some supervisors assess productivity such as these by observation. The term proxy means to approximate the...
"Hall first noted the emergence of the protean career in 1976, as he saw the beginnings of a shift away from the organizational career to this new orientation. He defined this orientation as: The...