Glossary of "O"

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Occupational sex segregation is one of the most important factors to consider, typically accounting for 10-30 percent of the wage gap (England, 1999). Women and men for the most part do not work in...
Exactly who are older workers?The definition of who is (and who is not) an older worker remains elusive. Unfortunately, inconsistencies in the definitions used to designate older workers make it...
"A person (sometimes a state official) who advocates on behalf of residents in an assisted living facility or health care institution. This person receives, investigates and resolves complaints...
“Off-ramping is an important phenomenon. A substantial minority (37%) of highly qualified women off-ramp - that is, they voluntarily leave their careers for a period of time… For highly qualified men...
“Child care programs that occur in facilities where parents are on the premises. For example, a child care center at the parents’ place of employment.” (Child Care Aware, 2006). “On-site child care...
Workers who,“do their work in a company office and do not work from home during regular work hours, but may leave the company location for occasional out-of-the-office activities such as conferences...
“…choose not to participate” (Opt, 2004). Used in the 2003 New York Times Magazine article “The Opt-Out Revolution” in reference to “educated professional women” who have “scaled down or redefined...
"A unique framework of authority within which a person or persons act, or are designated to act, towards some purpose." (United Nations)
"Organizational attractiveness is defined by Aiman-Smith et al. (2001) as "an attitude or expressed general positive affect toward an organization and toward viewing the organization as a desirable...
“Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), defined… as behavior that (a) goes beyond the basic requirements of the job, (b) is to a large extent discretionary, and (c) is of benefit to the...
“Organizational Commitment is typically measured by items tapping respondents’ willingness to work hard to improve their companies, the fit between the firm’s and the worker’s values, reluctance to...
“A pattern of shared basic assumptions " invented, discovered, or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration" that have worked...
Organizational justice is the study of the concerns about fairness in the workplace. Concerns about distribution of resources have to do with distributive justice, concerns about fairness of decision...
“In an oscillating shift, there is one shift that is on a fixed schedule and the remaining groups rotate. This type of arrangement tries to incorporate the benefits from both the fixed and the...
“Outsourcing(or contracting out) is often defined as the delegation of non-core operations or jobs from internal production within a business to an external entity (such as subcontractor) that...
“[T]he problem of overemployment refers to a situation where workers are willing but unable at their current jobs to reduce the amount of time they devote to earning an income. Many people go through...
“Overtime refers to working hours beyond some standard or norm. For employees on payrolls, this standard is widely considered 40 hours, embodying the spirit of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)...
“Overwork occurs when longer hours per day, week, or year begin to have deleterious effects on the individual, family, community and economy. The line between work and overwork is crossed when...