Glossary of "O"

  • A (36)
  • B (19)
  • C (58)
  • D (26)
  • E (34)
  • F (43)
  • G (20)
  • H (19)
  • I (27)
  • J (11)
  • K (1)
  • L (16)
  • M (27)
  • N (18)
  • O (18)
  • P (33)
  • Q (5)
  • R (30)
  • S (59)
  • T (16)
  • U (4)
  • V (7)
  • W (39)
Occupational sex segregation is one of the most important factors to consider, typically accounting for 10-30 percent of the wage gap (England, 1999). Women and men for the most part do not work in...

Hays-Thomas, R. (2006). Pay equity, a Sloan Work and Family Encyclopedia entry. Retrieved May 10, 1007, from the Sloan Work and Family Research Network website:

Exactly who are older workers?The definition of who is (and who is not) an older worker remains elusive. Unfortunately, inconsistencies in the definitions used to designate older workers make it...

Pitt-Catsouphes, M. & Smyer, M. (2005). Older workers: What keeps them working? The Center on Aging and Work/Workplace Flexibility. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College. Issue Brief 01

"A person (sometimes a state official) who advocates on behalf of residents in an assisted living facility or health care institution. This person receives, investigates and resolves complaints...

Bookman, A., Harrington, M., Pass, L., & Reisner, E. (2007). Family caregiver handbook: Finding elder care resources in Massachusetts. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

“Off-ramping is an important phenomenon. A substantial minority (37%) of highly qualified women off-ramp - that is, they voluntarily leave their careers for a period of time… For highly qualified men...

Hewlett, S. & Luce, C.B. (2005). Off ramps and on ramps. Harvard Business Review, 83(3), 43-54.

“Child care programs that occur in facilities where parents are on the premises. For example, a child care center at the parents’ place of employment.” (Child Care Aware, 2006). “On-site child care...

Child Care Aware. (2006). Child care glossary. Retrieved December 13, 2006, from

Connelly, R., DeGraff, D., & Willis, R. (2002). If you build it, they will come: Parental use of on-site child care centers. Population Research and Policy Review, 21, 241-273.

Workers who,“do their work in a company office and do not work from home during regular work hours, but may leave the company location for occasional out-of-the-office activities such as conferences...

Richman, A., Noble, K., & Johnson, A. (2002). When the workplace is many places. The extent and nature of off-site work today. Watertown: WFD Consulting Inc.

“…choose not to participate” (Opt, 2004). Used in the 2003 New York Times Magazine article “The Opt-Out Revolution” in reference to “educated professional women” who have “scaled down or redefined...

opt v.intr." The Oxford American dictionary of current English. (1999). [Online]. Oxford University Press. Oxford Reference Online. BLC Boston College Libraries. Retrieved June 8, 2005, from

Belkin, L. (2003, October 26). The opt-out revolution. The New York Times Magazine, p. 42.

Society for Human Resource Management. (n.d.). Glossary. Retrieved August 16, 2005, from

"A unique framework of authority within which a person or persons act, or are designated to act, towards some purpose." (United Nations)

Organization. (n.d.). In UN Data Glossary. Retrieved from

"Organizational attractiveness is defined by Aiman-Smith et al. (2001) as "an attitude or expressed general positive affect toward an organization and toward viewing the organization as a desirable...

Casper, W. Recruitment, a Sloan Work and Family Encyclopedia entry. Retrieved May 10, 2007, from the Sloan Work and Family Research Network website:

“Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), defined… as behavior that (a) goes beyond the basic requirements of the job, (b) is to a large extent discretionary, and (c) is of benefit to the...

Lambert, S.J.  (2006) Both art and science: Employing organizational documentation in workplace-based research.  In Pitt-Catsouphes, M., Kossek, E.E., & Sweet, S. (Eds.). The work and family handbook: Multi-disciplinary perspectives, methods, and approaches.  (pp.503-525).  Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.  

Lee, K., & Allen, N. J.  (2002). Organizational citizenship behavior and workplace deviance: The role of affect and cognitions.  Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(1), 131-142.

“Organizational Commitment is typically measured by items tapping respondents’ willingness to work hard to improve their companies, the fit between the firm’s and the worker’s values, reluctance to...

Maume, D. J.  (2006). Gender differences in taking vacation time. Work and Occupations, 33(2), 161-190.

“A pattern of shared basic assumptions " invented, discovered, or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration" that have worked...

Schein, E.H. (1992), Organizational Culture and Leadership: A Dynamic View, 2nd ed., Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA.

Swanberg, J.E.  (2004). Illuminating gendered organization assumptions. An important step in creating a family-friendly organization: a case study.  Community, Work & Family, 7(1), 3-28. 

Organizational justice is the study of the concerns about fairness in the workplace. Concerns about distribution of resources have to do with distributive justice, concerns about fairness of decision...

Colquitt, J., Greenberg, J., & Zapata-Phelan, C. P. (2005). What is organizational justice? A historical overview. In J. Greenberg & J. Colquitt (Eds.), Handbook of organizational justice (pp. 3-56). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Greenberg, J. (1990). Organizational justice: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow. Journal of Management, 16, 399-432.

“In an oscillating shift, there is one shift that is on a fixed schedule and the remaining groups rotate. This type of arrangement tries to incorporate the benefits from both the fixed and the...

Oexman, R.D., Knotts, T.L., & Koch, J. (2002, December). Working while the world sleeps: A consideration of sleep and shift work design. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 14(4), 145 - 157.

“Outsourcing(or contracting out) is often defined as the delegation of non-core operations or jobs from internal production within a business to an external entity (such as subcontractor) that...

Outsourcing. In Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved on May 16, 2006 from

“[T]he problem of overemployment refers to a situation where workers are willing but unable at their current jobs to reduce the amount of time they devote to earning an income. Many people go through...

Golden, L. (2003). Forced overtime in the land of the free. In J. de Graaf (Ed.), Take back your time (pp. 28-36).San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.

“Overtime refers to working hours beyond some standard or norm. For employees on payrolls, this standard is widely considered 40 hours, embodying the spirit of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)...

Golden, L. (2003). Forced overtime in the land of the free. In J. de Graaf (Ed.), Take back your time (pp. 28-36). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.

U.S.Department of Labor. (1981). Code of federal regulations for the U.S. Department of Labor: 29 CFR 778.110 - Hourly rate employee. Retrieved on December 6, 2005.

“Overwork occurs when longer hours per day, week, or year begin to have deleterious effects on the individual, family, community and economy. The line between work and overwork is crossed when...

deGraaf, J. (2003). Take back your time: Fighting overwork and time poverty in America. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler