Glossary of "L"

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"The study of labor-management relations (LMR) refers to the rules and policies which govern and organize employment, how these are established and implemented, and how they affect the needs and...

Von Otter, C. (2007). Labor-management relations. In  G. Ritzer (Ed.), Blackwell encyclopedia of sociology. Blackwell Publishing. Blackwell Reference Online. Retrieved June 13, 2007, from

"Leave donation programs allow employees to contribute accrued paid leave days - most often, sick and annual leave - to co-workers who have exhausted their own leave. The donated leave can sometimes...

National Partnership for Women & Families (2005). Where families matter: State progress toward valuing America’s families. A summary of 2005 initiatives. Washington, D.C.: National Partnership for Women & Families.

“Time when one has permission to be absent from work or duty” (Leave2, 2004). Being allowed to be away from work.” (Dictionary of Human Resources & Personnel Management)

"leave2 n." Soanes, C. and Stevenson, A. (Ed.). (2004). The concise Oxford English dictionary. [Online]. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Oxford Reference Online. BLC Boston College Libraries. Retrieved June 8, 2005, from Dictionary of human resources & personnel management. (1997). Essex: Peter Collin Publishing.

"Any authorized times away from work. Leaves may be fully paid, partially paid, or unpaid and may or may not include full benefits coverage. One of the most common leaves is taking time off to become...

FlexPaths. (n.d.) Glossary. Retrieved from

"...[B]ecause of the diversity of life course situations, neighborhoods are unlikely to have the same effects on all dual-earner couples. Some couples have young children, others are deeply involved...

Swisher, R., Sweet, S. & Moen, P. (2004). The family-friendly community and its life course fit for dual-earner couples. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66(2), 281-292.

"Postmodern: turning attention away from collective forms of identification and self understanding, to individualized practices which give more freedom to the individual to map out their own route to...

Brannen, J. & Nilsen, A. (2003, January 28). Adulthood: Changing Concepts and Definitions, A Sloan Work and Family Encyclopedia Entry. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Life satisfaction is an overall assessment of feelings and attitudes about one’s life at a particular point in time ranging from negative to positive. It is one of three major indicators of well-...

Buetell, N. (2006). Life satisfaction, a Sloan Work and Family Encyclopedia entry. Retrieved May 10, 2007, from the Sloan Work and Family Research Network website:

“Life stage: Super (1990) proposed five life stages (Growth, or childhood; Exploration, or adolescence; Establishment, or young adulthood; Maintenance, or middle adulthood; and Decline, or old age)...

Carson, A.D. (Ed.) (n.d.) Dictionary. In Vocational Vocational psychology and career counseling resources. Retrieved August 17, 2005, from

Reference for this quote: Super, D. E. (1990). Career choice and development (pp. 197-261). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

McGoldrick, M. & Carter, B. (1982). "The family life cycle." In Froma Walsh, (Ed.). Normal family processes. New York: Guilford Publications.

Levinson, Daniel J. (1978). The seasons of a man’s life. New York: Knopf.

Levinson, Daniel J. (1997). The seasons of a woman’s life. New York: Ballentine.

“Light therapy…can help reduce shift lag (Dawson, et al., 1994). In light therapy, workers are exposed to bright light during the time the body starts lowering its temperature, which is normally...

Oexman, R.D., Knotts, T.L., & Koch, J. (2002, December). Working while the world sleeps: A consideration of sleep and shift work design. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 14(4), 145 - 157.

Line of sight is a concept from theory on compensation and goal-setting that suggests that rewards and performance goals should be designed so that the employee sees a common line of sight between...

As defined by Kossek.

Performance Compensation for Stakeholders. Retrieved October 1, 2003, from

Living apart together refers to couples who have an ongoing self-defined couple relationship without everyday cohabiting (Levin & Trost, 1999, pp. 280-281).

Levin, I., & Trost, J. (1999). Living apart together. Community, Work and Family, 2, 279-293.

Living wages are those that are “high enough to allow workers to meet basic needs” (Thompson & Chapman, 2006, p.1). “The living wage level is usually the wage a full-time worker would need to...

Thompson, J. & Chapman, J. (2006). The economic impact of local living wages. Retrieved May 16, 2006, from

Economic Policy Institute (2002). EPI issue guide: Living Wage. Retrieved May 16, 2006, from

“…defined as more than 48 hours a week.” (p. 2)

Kodz, J., Davis, S., Lain, D., Sheppard, E., Rick, J., Strebler, M., Bates, P., Cummings, J., Meager, N., Anxo, D., Gineste, S., & Trinczek, R. (2003). Working long hours in the UK: A review of the research literature, analysis of survey data and cross-national organizational case studies (Employment Relations Research Series, No. 16), Executive Summary. London: Department of Trade & Industry.

“caregivers who provide care for an elder who lives at least an hour away” (pg. 6-7).

Neal, M. B., & Wagner, D. L., (n.d.) Working caregivers:Issues, challenges, and opportunities for the agingnetwork (NFCSP Issue Brief). [Online]. Retrieved from on June 9, 2004.

A low income working family is a “working family with income less than 200 percent of the poverty threshold” (p.12).

Waldron, T., Roberts, B. & Reamer, A. (October 2004). Working hard, falling short: America’s working families and the pursuit of economic security: A national report by the Working Poor Families Project, sponsored by the Annie E. Casey, Ford, and Rockefeller Foundations. Baltimore, MD: The Annie E. Casey Foundation.

“The Economy Policy Institute reports that approximately 24 percent (almost one-fourth) of all American workers today earn below-poverty incomes ($8.71 an hour or less.) Low-income workers tend to be...

Brandt, B. (2003). An issue for everybody. In J. de Graaf (Ed.), Take back your time (pp. 28-36). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.