Gender and Use of Workplace Policies

Gender: workforce demographics (2005)

Statistic: 

Out of all workers 16 years of age and older, men represented 56% of these workers, while women represented 44%. (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2005, Table 39)

Source: 

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Division of Labor Force Statistics (2005). Household data annual averages. Washington, DC: Author. 

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For frequently asked questions about the survey, click here: http://www.bls.gov/cps/cps_faq.htm#Ques2

Description: 

“While the primary purpose of the CPS is to obtain monthly statistics on the labor force, it also serves as a vehicle for inquiries on other subjects. Using CPS data, the Bureau issues a series of publications under the general title of Current Population Reports, which cover population characteristics (P20), consumer income (P60), special studies (P23), and other topics. Estimates of population characteristics based on the CPS will not agree with the counts from the census because the CPS and the census use different procedures for collecting and processing the data for racial groups, the Hispanic population, and other topics. Caution should also be used when comparing estimates for various years because of the periodic introduction of changes into the CPS. Beginning in January 1994, a number of changes were introduced into the CPS that effect all data comparisons with prior years. These changes include the results of a major redesign of the survey questionnaire and collection methodology and the introduction of 1990 census population controls, adjusted for the estimated undercount. Beginning with the 2001 CPS Annual Demographic Supplement the independent estimates used as control totals for the CPS are based on civilian population benchmarks consistent with Census 2000. In March 2002, the sample size of the Annual Demographic Supplement was increased to approximately 78,000. These changes in population controls had relatively little impact on derived measures such as means, medians, and percent distribution, but did have a significant impact on levels” (U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States (2003). No. 605. Persons doing job-related work at home: 2001. Retrieved September 15, 2006, from http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/03statab/pop.pdf)

Gender: employer support, equity, family matters (2005)

Statistic: 

According to the 2005 NSE, "approximately three quarters responded 'very true' to statements assessing whether men and women who must attend to family matters are equally supported by the organization (76%)" (Bond, Galinsky, Kim, & Brownfield, 2005, p. 19).

Source: 

Bond, J., Galinsky, E., Kim, S., & Brownfield, E. (2005). National study of employers. New York, NY: Families and Work Institute.

Description: 

This study was designed to build on the 1998 Business Work-Life Study and therefore provides data on changes that have occurred over the last 7 years. "The 2005 NSE sample included 1,092 employers with 50 or more employees, "66 percent are for-profit companies and 34 percent are nonprofit organizations; 44 percent operate at only one location, while 56 percent have operations at more than one location...(The survey was conducted) using telephone interviews with human resource directors. Harris Interactive staff conducted the interviews from September 23, 2004 to April 5, 2005. Employers were selected from Dun & Bradstreet lists, using a stratified random sampling procedure in which selection was proportional to the number of people employed by each company to ensure a large enough sample of large organizations. The response rate was 38 percent, based on the percentage of all companies on the call-list that completed interviews" (Bond, Galinsky, Kim, & Brownfield,  2005, p. 1).

Shift Work: gender, prevalence (2005)

Statistic: 

“Men were more likely than women to work an alternative shift (16.7 and 12.4 percent, respectively)” (United States Department of Labor, 2005, p. 3).

Source: 

United States Department of Labor (2005, July 1). Workers on flexible and shift schedules in May 2004. Retrieved January 19, 2006, from http://www.bls.gov/news.release/flex.toc.htm

Description: 

These data and other information on work schedules were obtained from a supplement to the May 2004 Current Population Survey (CPS).  The CPS is a monthly sample survey of about 60,000 households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), principally to gather information on employment and unemployment for the nation.  Respondents to the May 2004 supplement answered questions about flexible and shift schedules, the reasons for working particular shifts, the beginning and ending hours of work, formal flexitime programs, home-based work, and other related topics.  The data in this release cover the incidence and nature of flexible and shift schedules and pertain to wage and salary workers who usually worked 35 hours or more per week on their principal job.  The data exclude all self-employed persons, regardless of whether or not their businesses were incorporated.

The May 2001 data presented in this release have been revised to reflect the introduction of Census 2000-based population controls and thus may differ from previously published estimates which were based on population controls derived from the 1990 census.  The introduction of the Census 2000-based population controls increased the May 2001 employment levels but had relatively little impact on proportions and percents derived from the employment levels.  Sample results from the CPS are weighted up to independent estimates of the population by sex, age, race, and Hispanic or Latino/non-Hispanic ethnicity.  The weights, or population controls, are developed using counts of the civilian noninstitutional population derived from the decennial census and are updated using information from administrative records.

Time Off: paid vacation, childless men, age, utilization (2004)

Statistic: 

According to the Ecology of Careers study, "…childless men over age 40 are the most apt to have and use their vacations (92.9%)" (Moen et al., 2004, p. 18). 

Source: 

Moen, P., Dempster-McClain, D., Altobelli, J., Wimonsate, W., Dahl, L., Roehling, P., & Sweet, S. (2004). The new "middle" work force. Life Course Center at the University of Minnesota and the Bronfenbrenner Life Course Center (and Cornell Careers Institute) at Cornell University. 

Description: 

The Ecology of Careers Study involved interviewing, "a random sample of mostly middle-class employees working with various organizations and/or living in certain neighborhoods in upstate [Central and Western] New York. If they were married or living with someone, we also interviewed their partners as well [1764 men and 1712 women; 1653 couples]. The people in this study may be considered -- and consider themselves-- middle-class; most are managers, professionals, technical workers, and almost all have at least some college education. But they are a diverse group, varying by gender, age, life stage, ethnicity and country of origin, marital status, parental status, employment status, income, and ability/disability, as well as by where they live and where they work" (Moen et. al., 2004, p. 2). 

Gender: age, parental status, ideal work hours (2004)

Statistic: 

According to the Ecology of Careers study, "We find the least difference between men's and women's ideal work hours among employees who are younger (under 40 years of age) without children. Within this group, men's ideal is about 37 hours and women's is about 35 hours" (Moen et al., 2004, p. 22). 

Source: 

Moen, P., Dempster-McClain, D., Altobelli, J., Wimonsate, W., Dahl, L., Roehling, P., & Sweet, S. (2004). The new "middle" work force. Life Course Center at the University of Minnesota and the Bronfenbrenner Life Course Center (and Cornell Careers Institute) at Cornell University.

Description: 

The Ecology of Careers Study involved interviewing, "a random sample of mostly middle-class employees working with various organizations and/or living in certain neighborhoods in upstate [Central and Western] New York. If they were married or living with someone, we also interviewed their partners as well [1764 men and 1712 women; 1653 couples]. The people in this study may be considered -- and consider themselves-- middle-class; most are managers, professionals, technical workers, and almost all have at least some college education. But they are a diverse group, varying by gender, age, life stage, ethnicity and country of origin, marital status, parental status, employment status, income, and ability/disability, as well as by where they live and where they work" (Moen et. al., 2004, p. 2). 

Gender: men, marital status, divorce, ideal work hours (2004)

Statistic: 

According to the Ecology of Careers study, "...men who get divorced between interviews subsequently report the highest number of ideal hours of work (39.36) for all men" (Moen et al., 2004, p. 22). 

Source: 

Moen, P., Dempster-McClain, D., Altobelli, J., Wimonsate, W., Dahl, L., Roehling, P., & Sweet, S. (2004). The new "middle" work force. Life Course Center at the University of Minnesota and the Bronfenbrenner Life Course Center (and Cornell Careers Institute) at Cornell University. 

Description: 

The Ecology of Careers Study involved interviewing, "a random sample of mostly middle-class employees working with various organizations and/or living in certain neighborhoods in upstate [Central and Western] New York. If they were married or living with someone, we also interviewed their partners as well [1764 men and 1712 women; 1653 couples]. The people in this study may be considered -- and consider themselves-- middle-class; most are managers, professionals, technical workers, and almost all have at least some college education. But they are a diverse group, varying by gender, age, life stage, ethnicity and country of origin, marital status, parental status, employment status, income, and ability/disability, as well as by where they live and where they work" (Moen et. al., 2004, p. 2). 

Gender: men, marital status, single, ideal work hours (2004)

Statistic: 

According to the Ecology of Careers study, "...men who stay single typically report the lowest ideal hours (29.78)" (Moen et al., 2004, p. 22). 

Source: 

Moen, P., Dempster-McClain, D., Altobelli, J., Wimonsate, W., Dahl, L., Roehling, P., & Sweet, S. (2004). The new "middle" work force. Life Course Center at the University of Minnesota and the Bronfenbrenner Life Course Center (and Cornell Careers Institute) at Cornell University. 

Description: 

The Ecology of Careers Study involved interviewing, "a random sample of mostly middle-class employees working with various organizations and/or living in certain neighborhoods in upstate [Central and Western] New York. If they were married or living with someone, we also interviewed their partners as well [1764 men and 1712 women; 1653 couples]. The people in this study may be considered -- and consider themselves-- middle-class; most are managers, professionals, technical workers, and almost all have at least some college education. But they are a diverse group, varying by gender, age, life stage, ethnicity and country of origin, marital status, parental status, employment status, income, and ability/disability, as well as by where they live and where they work" (Moen et. al., 2004, p. 2). 

Gender: women, marital status, ideal work hours (2004)

Statistic: 

According to the Ecology of Careers study, "Both women who remain single and women who get divorced...typically have the highest ideal work hours at the second interview (34.97 and 34.05 respectively), while women who remain married and (n = 1,525) the 20 women who get married between interviews tend to have the lowest ideal hours (29.38 and 29.84 respectively)" (Moen et al., 2004, p. 22). 

Source: 

Moen, P., Dempster-McClain, D., Altobelli, J., Wimonsate, W., Dahl, L., Roehling, P., & Sweet, S. (2004). The new "middle" work force. Life Course Center at the University of Minnesota and the Bronfenbrenner Life Course Center (and Cornell Careers Institute) at Cornell University. 

Description: 

The Ecology of Careers Study involved interviewing, "a random sample of mostly middle-class employees working with various organizations and/or living in certain neighborhoods in upstate [Central and Western] New York. If they were married or living with someone, we also interviewed their partners as well [1764 men and 1712 women; 1653 couples]. The people in this study may be considered -- and consider themselves-- middle-class; most are managers, professionals, technical workers, and almost all have at least some college education. But they are a diverse group, varying by gender, age, life stage, ethnicity and country of origin, marital status, parental status, employment status, income, and ability/disability, as well as by where they live and where they work" (Moen et. al., 2004, p. 2). 

Time Off: paid vacation, gender, utilization (2004)

Statistic: 

According to the Ecology of Careers study, " ...3% of men and 2% of women say paid vacations are available but that they do not take advantage of the vacation time they are eligible for" (Moen et al., 2004, p. 16). 

Source: 

Moen, P., Dempster-McClain, D., Altobelli, J., Wimonsate, W., Dahl, L., Roehling, P., & Sweet, S. (2004). The new "middle" work force. Life Course Center at the University of Minnesota and the Bronfenbrenner Life Course Center (and Cornell Careers Institute) at Cornell University. 

Description: 

The Ecology of Careers Study involved interviewing, "a random sample of mostly middle-class employees working with various organizations and/or living in certain neighborhoods in upstate [Central and Western] New York. If they were married or living with someone, we also interviewed their partners as well [1764 men and 1712 women; 1653 couples]. The people in this study may be considered -- and consider themselves-- middle-class; most are managers, professionals, technical workers, and almost all have at least some college education. But they are a diverse group, varying by gender, age, life stage, ethnicity and country of origin, marital status, parental status, employment status, income, and ability/disability, as well as by where they live and where they work" (Moen et. al., 2004, p. 2). 

Time Off: paid vacation, gender (2004)

Statistic: 

According to the Ecology of Careers study, "...one in twenty (5.3%) of the men and one in ten (10.1%) of the women no longer have paid vacations by the time we interview them the second time" (Moen et al., 2004, p. 17). 

Source: 

Moen, P., Dempster-McClain, D., Altobelli, J., Wimonsate, W., Dahl, L., Roehling, P., & Sweet, S. (2004). The new "middle" work force. Life Course Center at the University of Minnesota and the Bronfenbrenner Life Course Center (and Cornell Careers Institute) at Cornell University. 

Description: 

The Ecology of Careers Study involved interviewing, "a random sample of mostly middle-class employees working with various organizations and/or living in certain neighborhoods in upstate [Central and Western] New York. If they were married or living with someone, we also interviewed their partners as well [1764 men and 1712 women; 1653 couples]. The people in this study may be considered -- and consider themselves-- middle-class; most are managers, professionals, technical workers, and almost all have at least some college education. But they are a diverse group, varying by gender, age, life stage, ethnicity and country of origin, marital status, parental status, employment status, income, and ability/disability, as well as by where they live and where they work" (Moen et. al., 2004, p. 2). 

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