Family Responsibilities Discrimination (FRD)

Dependent Care, Definition(s) of

“A generic term for child care, eldercare, and care of the disabled.” (Stebbins, 2001, p. 232).

Related: Dependent Care Assistance Program
“An employee benefit that allows employers to offer employees with caregiving expenses the ability to pay for these caregiving services with pretax dollars.” (Stebbins, 2001, p. 232).

Related: Dependent Care Assistance Plan (DCAP)
“An employer benefit plan that provides employees with dependent care assistance, such as paying for or providing qualified child and dependent care services necessary for them to seek or obtain gainful employment or remain gainfully employed.” (Society for Human Resource Management)

Glossary Source: 

Stebbins, L.F. (2001). Work and family in America. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, Inc.

Society for Human Resource Management. (n.d.). Glossary. Retrieved August 16, 2005, from

Leave of Absence, Definition(s) of

“Time when one has permission to be absent from work or duty” (Leave2, 2004).

Being allowed to be away from work.” (Dictionary of Human Resources & Personnel Management)

Glossary Source: 

"leave2 n." Soanes, C. and Stevenson, A. (Ed.). (2004). The concise Oxford English dictionary. [Online]. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Oxford Reference Online. BLC Boston College Libraries. Retrieved June 8, 2005, from Dictionary of human resources & personnel management. (1997). Essex: Peter Collin Publishing.

EEOC (U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission), Definition(s) of

“The EEOC was created by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and began operating on July 2, 1965. The purpose of the EEOC is to eliminate discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, national origin, disability, or age in hiring, promoting, firing, wages, testing, training, apprenticeship, and all other terms and conditions of employment.”

“The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is responsible for enforcing federal laws that make it illegal to discriminate against a job applicant or an employee because of the person’s race, color, religion, sex (including pregnancy), national origin, age (40 or older), disability or genetic information. It is also illegal to discriminate against a person because the person complained about discrimination, filed a charge of discrimination, or participated in an employment discrimination investigation or lawsuit.

Most employers with at least 15 employees are covered by EEOC laws (20 employees in age discrimination cases). Most labor unions and employment agencies are also covered.”

Glossary Source: 

AARP (2004). Acronyms in aging: Organizations, agencies, programs, and laws. AARP Research Information Center.

1801 L Street, NW
Washington, DC 20507
(202) 663-4900
(800) 669-4000
(202) 663-4912 (FAX)
Web site:

Dependent, Definition(s) of

“The new code 152 definition of dependent borrows many of the old rules, but reorganizes them and adds several significant new requirements. Under the new definition of dependent, an individual can be considered a dependent of the taxpayer if he or she is either a ‘qualifying child’ or a ‘qualifying relative’… In order to be treated as a ‘qualifying relative,’ none of those individuals (qualifying relatives) may earn more than the ‘exemption amount’ [$3,200 for 2005] that would otherwise enable the taxpayer to take a dependent exemption deduction with respect to the individual on his or her tax return. This is a new requirement for dependent treatment.”

Glossary Source: 

Glaser, D.M. (2004). Re-defining “dependent”: Unexpected impact on benefit plans.New York Law Journal, December.

Work-Family Accommodation, Definition(s) of

"The process by which individuals reduce their involvement in one role to accommodate the demands of the other role." (Greenhaus & Singh)

"This process is characterized by workers limiting their involvement in work, or in family life, so that they can accommodate the demands of the other" (p. 246). (Lambert, 1990).

Glossary Source: 

Greenhaus, J. & Singh, R. (2003, February 25). Work-Family Linkages, A Sloan Work and Family Encyclopedia Entry. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Lambert, S. J. (1990). Processes linking work and family: A critical review and research agenda. Human Relations, 43(3), 239-257.

Motherhood Wage Penalty, Definition(s) of

Fraction of gender wage gap attributable to being a mother, rather than merely a woman. (Schor)

Glossary Source: 

As defined by Schor.  

Family-Friendly Policies, Definition(s) of

"Are programs sponsored by the organization designed to help employees balance work and family roles. Including but not limited to health or stress management programs; Family and Medical Leave Act; alternative work arrangements; and dependent care support."

Glossary Source: 

As defined by Grandey & Cordeiro in Family-Friendly Policies and Organizational Justice, a Sloan Work and Family Encyclopedia entry. Retrieved from the Sloan Work and Family Research Network website:

Grandey, A.A. (2001). Family friendly policies: Organizational justice perceptions of need-based allocations. In R. Cropanzano (Ed.), Justice in the workplace: From theory to practice, (Vol 2, pp. 145-173). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Family and Medical Leave Act, Definition(s) of

“…FMLA means the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, Public Law 103-3 (February 5, 1993), 107 Stat. 6 (29 U.S.C. 2601 et seq.)… The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA or Act) allows "eligible'' employees of a covered employer to take job-protected, unpaid leave, or to substitute appropriate paid leave if the employee has earned or accrued it, for up to a total of 12 workweeks in any 12 months because of the birth of a child and to care for the newborn child, because of the placement of a child with the employee for adoption or foster care, because the employee is needed to care for a family member (child, spouse, or parent) with a serious health condition, or because the employee's own serious health condition makes the employee unable to perform the functions of his or her job (see Sec. 825.306(b)(4))…”

Click here for rest of definition.

Glossary Source: 

U.S. Department of Labor (1995). 29 CFR 825.800 - Definitions. Retrieved on on 2/10/05 from:

Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Definition(s) of

“Discrimination on the basis of pregnancy, childbirth or related medical conditions constitutes unlawful sex discrimination under Title VII. Women affected by pregnancy or related conditions must be treated in the same manner as other applicants or employees with similar abilities or limitations.”

Glossary Source: 

The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (2005). Facts about pregnancy discrimination. Retrieved on March 7, 2005 from

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