Glossary of "E"

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The Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) is a federal anti-poverty tax credit that is designed to supplement the earnings of low income workers by reducing or eliminating their taxes. The EITC is...
"Ecological systems theory is an approach to study of human development that consists of the 'scientific study of the progressive, mutual accommodation, throughout the life course, between an active...
Economic globalization “pertains to deeper integration and more rapid interaction of economies through production, trade, and (unregulated) financial transactions by banks and multinational...
"Twelve states and the District of Columbia…have adopted educational leave laws. The laws vary as to whether provision of such leave is mandatory, how much time parents can take off, which employees...
The individual patterning of education-related transitions throughout the life course (Gorard et al., 1998, 2001; Pallas, 2003)
“Well-traveled sequences of [education-related] transitions that are shaped by cultural and structural forces” (Pallas, 2003, p. 168; see also Gorard, Rees, Fevre & Furlong, 1998; Gorard, Rees,...
“The EEOC was created by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and began operating on July 2, 1965. The purpose of the EEOC is to eliminate discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex,...
"Program providing casework services to elders that allow them to safely remain in their own community when they can no longer meet their own needs for food, clothing, shelter, personal care, or...
The affective component of support that one worker provides to another (e.g., listening and empathy). 
“Emotional labor applies to both men’s and women’s work, but is the ‘softer’ emotions, those required in relational tasks, such as caring and nurturing, that disappear most often from job description...
“Emotional support for working caregivers can come in the form of support from co-workers and supervisors at the workplace, support from other family members, and support from friends” (pg. 11).
"...an employer-sponsored service designed for personal or family problems, including mental health, substance abuse, various addictions, marital problems, parenting problems, emotional problems, and...
“Services offered by employers to their employees to help them overcome problems that may negatively affect job satisfaction or productivity. Services may be provided on-site or contracted through...
’Employee relations’ is a common title for the industrial relations function within personnel management and is also sometimes used as an alternative label for the academic field of industrial...
"A regular employee (full or part time) who works remotely at least one day per month during normal business hours." (WorldatWork, 2007).
"An employee is a person who enters an agreement, which may be formal or informal, with an enterprise to work for the enterprise in return for remuneration in cash or in kind." (United Nations)
“Credits available to businesses to allow them to reduce their business taxes. In the area of child care, a business who offers families assistance in paying for child care or operates a center may...
"Any employer of any size in the public, private, or not-for-profit sector that attracts, optimizes, and holds top talent for long tenure ... because the employees choose to be there" (Herman and...
“Refers to a situation in which an employer, a group of employers, or a labor union takes some initiative in meeting employees’ child care needs and bears some or all of the cost.” (Govenor’s...
“A child care setting that may offer benefits to employees. Some of these programs may be on-site near the parents’ place of employer.” (Child Care Aware, 2006).
"Employers are self-employed persons with paid employees." (United Nations)
A person with a physical, mental, or emotional condition lasting six months or more, who has difficulty in doing any of the activities that are typically completed while working at a job or business...
“Engaged" employees are builders. They want to know the desired expectations for their role so they can meet and exceed them. They're naturally curious about their company and their place in it. They...
"Individual's supply of energy is abundant and expandable." (Hammer & Thompson citing Marks) "Multiple roles may increase or enhance one's energy by increasing sources of identity, self-esteem,...
“Enthusiastic [work] addicts work the longest hours and report less private time out of all the groups identified. This group is significantly male and often within high hierarchical positions....
"The construction of the Pregnancy Discrimination Act primarily reflects the “equal treatment” philosophy espoused by some feminist legal scholars (Vogel, 1993; Williams, 1993). These scholars argue...
“The Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA) is a federal law that sets minimum standards for most voluntarily established pension and health plans in private industry to provide...
Ethnography refers to both a description of a specific society, community, or institution and the process by which it is produced.
"Exceptional caregiving responsibilities, which differ from typical caregiving responsibilities on several dimensions: time spent arranging care (13.5% of parents caring for children with special...
In exchange relationships, benefits are given with the expectation of receiving a comparable benefit in the future or in return for a benefit already received. Exchange relationships are contrasted...